Scientific Program

Conference Series LLC Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 24th Global Obesity Meeting Tokyo, Japan.

Day 1 :

  • Obesity

Session Introduction

Xia Guo

The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, USA

Title: Novel Role of DOCK2 in Diet-induced Obesity and Lung Injury
Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Guo completed her PhD in 2014 from the University of Georgia (UGA) where she continued as a postodoc scholar and a research scientist. During her study at UGA, Dr. Guo received both pre-doctoral and postdoctorl fellowships from American Heart Association. She joined the University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler as an Assistant Professor in 2019 with a NIH K99/R00 grant. She has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals (e.g., Circ. Res., ATVB, J Lipid Res., J. Hepatol., and Am. J. Pathol.). She also serves in the reviewer committee for the American Heart Association. 

Abstract:

Obesity is a significant heath burden and is involved in the development of various lung diseases. However, little is known about the effects of chronic high-fat and high-fructose (HFHF) diet-induced obesity on lung inflammatory/injury. We previously showed that dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2) is critical for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation. DOCK2 deficient mice were protected from HFD induced body weight gain, insulin resistance, and increased proinflammatory cytokines in the adipose tissue and peripheral circulation. However, it remains elusive whether DOCK2 plays a role in lung injury associated with chronic HFHF diet-induced obesity. In this study, we showed that chronic HFHF diet (20 weeks) induced lung inflammatory infiltration and collagen expression in the wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Macrophage marker CD68 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression were notably increased in the lungs of WT mice fed a HFHF diet. Importantly, HFHF diet increased lung DOCK2 expression that co-localized with fibroblast marker, fibroblast-specific protein 1. These data suggest a potential role of DOCK2 in regulating proinflammatory phenotype of lung fibroblasts. Further, DOCK2 deficiency attenuated lung inflammation and fibrosis induced by chronic HFHF diet. In primary normal human lung fibroblast cells, TNF-α and IL-1β induced DOCK2 expression concurrent with MCP-1, IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinase-2. DOCK2 knockdown also suppressed TNF-α induced increase of these inflammatory mediators. Taken together, these findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of DOCK2 in mediating diet-induced obesity, and lung inflammation/fibrosis in chronic HFHF diet caused obesity. 

Speaker
Biography:

Marton Dvorak has his expertise in exercise therapy for elderly and patients with chronic diseases. He is working in University of Physical Education in Hungary as PhD student and also in Yourpower Health Center as exercise physiologist. Part of a lifestyle medicine team with doctors and nutritionists he is leading exercise therapy department for patients with diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases.

Abstract:

Obesity and Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease (ABCD) are one of the most common health risk factors nowadays but regular exercise – part of complex lifestyle medicine program – is effective treatment for obesity if it is individualized and followed by an exercise professional. For better results the accurate dose-effect is needed to be defined. Materials and Methods: The 30 weeks lifestyle change program of a 65-year-old male patient (Body Mass Index (BMI) 43.8 kg/m2) was followed by medical doctor, exercise physiologist and nutritionist. Over regular controls and blood tests every training was measured with a heart rate monitor watch and diet diary was written. Results: Bodyweight decreased by 24.1 kg (18,4%) and BMI to 35.8 kg/m2. Decreased resting heart rate (from 72 bpm to 63 bpm), diastolic blood pressure (from 72 mmHg to 67 mmHg) and increased systolic blood pressure (from 126 mmHg to 135 mmHg) were reported beside the reduce of antihypertensive and antidiabetic medicines. Blood test results and fitness level improved, daily steps and time spent with trainings increased. Conclusions: Lifestyle medicine with professional support is an effective and long-term treatment for ABCD. Individualized exercise and nutritional therapy are essential and the wearable technology with telemedicine consultation has also important role.

  • Childhood Obesity
Speaker
Biography:

Zurong Liang is currently a PhD candidate in the Department of Social Work and Social Administration, the University of Hong Kong. He earned his MSW from Nanjing University and BSW from Guangzhou University. His research focuses on gender and sexuality issues, as well as obesity and mental health problems of Chinese adolescents.

Abstract:

Previous research has indicated the association of perceived stress with mental health problems. In China, Confucian collectivism and an exam-centered culture encourage parents to have high educational ex- pectations that impose great pressure on their children’s learning. However, limited research has focused on adolescents’ perceptions of the negative consequences of academic stress stemming from their parents’ educational expectations. This study addressed this research gap by examining the direct effect of adolescents’ perceptions of academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the indirect effects of both parent-child communication and interaction. We further explored the pathway differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescents. By using a sample (n = 6,566) from the first two waves of the China Education Panel Survey, moderated mediation analysis was performed to simultaneously analyze the mediating roles of parent-children communication and parent-children interaction and the moderating role of adolescent overweight status. The results showed that adolescents’ perceived academic stress (W1) was positively associated with their depressive symptoms (W2). This association was partially mediated by both parent-child communication (W1) and parent-child interaction (W1). Moreover, adolescent overweight status significantly moderated the paths between the adolescents’ perceived academic stress and their depressive symptoms, between their perceived academic stress and parent-child interaction, and the indirect relationship via parent-child interaction. The study’s findings identify the significant roles of parent-child communication and parent-children interaction in contemporary China and indicate overweight adolescents’ susceptibility to stress.

  • Metabolic Syndrome
Speaker
Biography:

Mary-Ann Mbong is a Senior lecturer in the Department of Biochemistry of the University of Yaounde I, Cameroon where she got her Ph.D in 2014 at the age of 34. She is a member of the Cameroon Nutrition Society as well as the African Society of Nutrition. She has published 14 research articles in in the field of Nutritional Biochemistry. She is a Fulbright Scholar alumni who visited Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, Connecticut.

Abstract:

The high prevalence of non-communicable diseases is a challenging problem in the Cameroonian population and women are the most affected. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among pre- and post-menopausal women living in urban areas in Cameroon. A total of 499 women were recruited during a mass health campaign. Metabolic abnormalities were diagnosed using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. MetS was defined using IDF criteria with slight modification (total cholesterol used instead of HDL cholesterol). Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between menopausal status and metabolic abnormalities and MetS in age control and non-control models. The prevalence of high waist-to-hip ratio (56.8% vs 36.3%, p < 0.001), elevated fasting blood glucose (glycemia ≥ 100 mg/dL) (38.7% vs 26.9%, p = 0.006); diabetes (14.6% vs 5.7%, p = 0.001); high triglycerides level (29.7% vs 17.1%, p = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (high total cholesterol and or triglycerides levels) (45.0% vs 30.8%, p = 0.002); and elevated blood pressure (67.9% vs 56.1%, p = 0.007) were higher among post-menopausal than pre-menopausal women. The overall prevalence of MetS was 30.1% and post-menopausal women were more affected (33.8% vs 25.0%; p = 0.034). The odds ratio of MetS was 1.888 (95% CI: 1.016 - 3.507) when age was covariate, but was slightly reduced without age control (OR = 1.532; 95% CI: 1.031 - 2.275). Metabolic abnormalities seem to be a major health problem among Cameroonian women and menopausal status increased the risk of developing a cardiovascular event.

  • Current Research on Obesity

Session Introduction

Milton D. Chiang

Taipei Medical University, Taiwan

Title: Endotoxin induces pulmonary inflammation in obese mice
Speaker
Biography:

Milton Chiang currently is a Ph.D. candidate in the department of the International Master/Ph.D. program in Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan. He got his specialty in Internal Medicine at Francisco Marroquin University, Guatemala, and Medical Degree in Rafael Landivar University, Guatemala. His research focuses on obesity, inflammation, and its therapeutic.

Abstract:

Obesity is a global public health concern that has been related to an increased risk of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea. As overweight has become more prevalent, the effect of obesity on acute lung injury incidence and outcome has gained more attention in recent years. Despite this negative correlation, some investigations have revealed a controversial correlation, termed “obesity paradox” in which overweight with established cardiovascular disease have a better prognosis.

To elucidate further on this issue, we conducted this study with a diet-induced obesity murine model. Obese mice, adult C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks, received normal saline or endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally administered) (denoted as the Obese and LPS group, respectively). After 48 hours of administration of normal saline or endotoxin, mice were euthanized. The level of lung injury (injury score, tissue water content, and leukocyte infiltration in lung tissues) in the LPS group was significantly higher than in the Obese group (p=0.0002; =0.02; and =0.0001, respectively; Figure 1). The levels of pulmonary cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and interleukin-1β [IL-1 β]) in the LPS group were also significantly higher than in the Obese group (p=0.03; =0.0003; =0.0007; respectively; Figure 1D-F). Moreover, the level of pulmonary inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, indicator of proinflammatory M1 phase macrophage polarization) in the LPS group was significantly higher than in the Obese group (p=0.0087; Figure 1G). The expression levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) in lung tissues in the LPS group were significantly higher than in the Obese group (p=0.003 and <0.0001, respectively; Figure 2A), too. Similar pictures were observed in the levels of oxidation and apoptosis in lung tissues, as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA fragmentation (assayed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling [TUNEL] method and the count of TUNEL-positive cells) in the LPS group were significantly higher than in the Obese group (p<0.0001 and =0.001, respectively; Figure 2B-C).

In conclusion, data from this study collectively demonstrate that endotoxin induces significant inflammation in obesity mice.